born Sept. 6, 1808, near Mascara, Alg.—died May 26, 1883, Damascus, Syria) Founder of modern Algeria and leader of its struggle against the French. His father had led a harassment campaign against the French, who invaded Algeria in 1830. Abdelkader succeeded his father as emir in 1832; by 1837, through battles and treaties, he had established his rule over most of Algeria's interior, leaving the French in control of some port cities. He organized a true state, imposing equal taxes and suppressing the privileges of the warlike tribes. He fortified the interior towns, opened arsenals and workshops, and expanded education. The French overpowered his forces and arrested him by 1846. Upon his parole in 1853, he chose a life of exile, eventually settling in Damascus. Revered for his exemplary life and ideals, in 1860 he showed himself to be a model of decency and probity when, at great risk to his own safety, he sheltered thousands of Christians during a Druze uprising. He died respected by both French and Algerians (and by many others throughout the world), and he remains the Algerian national hero.