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عــلوم ، دين ـ قرآن ، حج ، بحوث ، دراسات أقســام علمية و ترفيهية .

    protection of the envirement / nature protection



    عدد المساهمات : 10329
    نقــــاط التمـــيز : 47461
    تاريخ التسجيل : 08/04/2009
    العمر : 25

    protection of the envirement / nature protection

    مُساهمة من طرف GODOF في السبت 3 أبريل - 14:34

    Protection of the Environment from the effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Rigorous regulatory mechanisms are already in place to restrict both the release of radionuclides to the environment and their accumulation in the environment. Under the current system, environmental radiation protection is achieved through the restriction of discharges of radioactive substances into the environment that ensures that members of the public receive radiation doses considerably below internationally established individual dose limits for humans. In setting discharge limits, it is currently assumed that, if human beings are adequately protected, other species will be protected at the population level. However there has been an increasing awareness of the vulnerability of the environment and of the need to be able to demonstrate that it is protected against the effects of industrial pollutants. This has been reflected in new and developing international policies and legal instruments and agreements. These have set additional goals for protection that have led to a review of the current approach for assessing and controlling the impact of radionuclides in the environment. Policies and approaches that specifically address impacts on non-human species are now being developed by a number of international, national and regional organizations. In particular, the explicit consideration of possible impacts on non-human species has led to the establishment of new work programmes by the ICRP and the IAEA, and to the recent appearance of ICRP Publication No. 91.

    The IAEA has a long history of activities in this field; most recently it clarified the principles underlying environmental protection in its publication IAEA-TECDOC-1270, "Ethical Considerations in Protecting the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation". Existing IAEA Safety guidance on the control of releases of radionuclides to the environment are based on Waste Safety Fundamentals (The principle of Radioactive Waste Management), the Basic Safety Standards, the Safety Guide on Discharge Control (Regulatory control of radioactive Discharges to the Environment) and a Safety Report on Generic Models.

    The IAEA has also promoted model validation and inter-comparison by a series of programmes (VAMP, BIOMASS). The most recent programme, known as the Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) was initiated in 2003. It provides a mechanism through which IAEA Member States may compare assessment methods and models. In future it will include a group specifically addressing assessments for non-human species. Work is in progress to identify suitable bases and scenarios for consideration by such a group.

    The IAEA and other international organisations have actively fostered information exchange on this subject by organizing a series of international meetings that solicited views from stakeholders and Member States. The International Conference on the Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation concluded this series of events. The Conference took place in Stockholm, 6-10 October 2003, and had as its primary objective to promote the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from effects attributable to ionizing radiation exposure. About 220 participants from 38 countries and 11 organizations attended it. The participants included senior policy makers and technical experts from the wide range of backgrounds necessary to reflect all interests in environmental assessment and management. The findings of this conference provided the basis to set up, under the aegis of the IAEA, an international Plan of Activities on the Radiation Protection of the Environment.
    Coordination Group on Radiation Protection of the Environment

    Representatives of IAEA Member States, UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation), ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) and IUR (International Union of Radioecologists) have drafted this Plan, and a common "road map" has been defined with respect to the objectives of these different organizations. This Plan of Activities was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in September 2005. Its implementation started in January 2006 by establishing of the Coordination Group on Radiation Protection of the Environment.

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الجمعة 20 يناير - 9:44